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Library Resources

StrabismusStrabismus PDF

Strabismus refers to misaligned eyes. If the eyes turn inward (crossed), it is called esotropia. If the eyes turn outward (wall-eyed), it is called exotropia. Or, one eye can be higher than the other which is called hypertropia (for the higher eye) or hypotropia (for the lower eye). Strabismus can be subtle or obvious, intermittent (occurring occasionally), or constant. It can affect one eye only or shift between the eyes. Continue reading

Smoking and Eye DiseaseSmoking and Eye Disease PDF

Tobacco smoking is directly linked to many adverse health effects, including high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. Smoking is also linked to specific eye disease.

How does smoking affect the eyes?

People who smoke cigarettes are at increased risk for developing cataracts, a clouding of the naturally clear lens of the eye. Cataracts cause a variety of vision problems, including blurry distance vision, sensitivity to glare, loss of contrast and difficulty seeing colors. When glasses or magnifiers are no longer helpful for someone with cataracts, or when cataracts develop in both eyes, surgery is the only option. Continue reading

Refractive ErrorsRefractive Errors PDF

To see clearly, light rays must be bent or refracted to focus on the retina, the light- sensitive nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. The cornea and lens of the eye work together to bend or refract light rays and bring them together on the retina, If a refractive error is present, the light is not focused directly on the retina, so images appear blurry.

Myopia (nearsightedness): Distance vision is impaired when the eye is too long in relation to the curvature of the cornea. This causes light to focus before it reaches the retina. Close objects look clear but distant objects appear blurry. Continue reading

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)Photorefractive Keratectomy Lasek PDF

Until recently, if you were one of the millions of people with a refractive error-light rays not focusing precisely on the retina-eyeglasses and contact lenses were the only options for correcting vision. But with the arrival of refractive surgery, some people may have their vision corrected through surgery. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is one of several refractive surgery procedures used by ophthalmologists to permanently change the shape of the cornea to improve the way it focuses light on the retina. Continue reading

Intraocular Lenses (iols)Intraocular Lenses PDF

An intraocular lens (IOL) is a tiny, lightweight, clear plastic disk placed in the eye during cataract surgery. An IOL replaces the focusing power of the eye’s natural lens.

The lens of the eye plays an important role in focusing images on the retina, If the lens loses its clarity, as it does when a cataract develops, light rays do not focus clearly and the image one sees is blurry. Glasses or contact lenses cannot sharpen vision if a cataract is present. Continue reading

How to insert EyedropsHow to insert eyedrops PDF

Infections, inflammation, glaucoma, and many other eye disorders are treated with eyedrops. Surprisingly, even the small amount of medication in an eyedrop can create significant side effects in other parts of the body. It is important to remember that all medicines have side effects. Continue reading

Floaters and FlashesFloaters & Flashes PDF

Small specks or clouds moving in your field of vision as you look at a blank wall or a clear blue sky are known as floaters. Most people have some floaters normally but do not notice them until they become numerous or more prominent.

In most cases, floaters are part of the natural aging process. Floaters look like cobwebs, squiggly lines or floating bugs, and appear to be in front of the eye, but are actually floating inside. As we get older, the vitreous-the clear gel-like substance that fills the inside of the eye-tends to shrink slightly and detach from the retina, forming clumps within the eye. What you see are the shadows these clumps cast on the retina, the light- sensitive nerve layer lining the back of the eye. Continue reading

EyeglassesEyeglasses PDF

Sixty percent of the 161 million Americans who wear prescription eyewear choose eyeglasses. Wearing eyeglasses is one of the simplest ways to correct vision problems.

To see images clearly, light rays must focus directly on the retina, the light-sensitive nerve layer that lines the back of the eye.  There are different kinds of focusing problems, called refractive errors, which may require corrective lenses. Continue reading

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